Air Pollution: Prevention and Control Technologies by Anjaneyulu Yerramilli
This book provides a strong interdisciplinary approach in presenting topics on air pollution by integrating the concepts of engineering, chemistry, meteorology, and environmental sciences. It covers the sources, effects, monitoring, and control of air pollution, as well as the modeling and simulation of air quality. It also discusses the legal and regulatory aspects of air pollution and the health impacts of exposure to various pollutants. The book is suitable for undergraduate and postgraduate students of environmental engineering, environmental science, and related disciplines.Sources and Effects of Air Pollution
Air pollution is caused by various substances that are released into the atmosphere by natural and human activities. Some of the common sources of air pollution are:
Vehicle emissions: Cars, trucks, buses, and other vehicles emit carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and other pollutants that contribute to smog, acid rain, and global warming.
Stationary power generation: Power plants that burn fossil fuels such as coal, oil, and natural gas produce sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, particulate matter, and carbon dioxide. These pollutants can affect the respiratory system, the cardiovascular system, and the climate.
Industrial and agricultural emissions: Factories, farms, mines, and other industrial activities release various gases and particles into the air. These include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), ammonia, methane, and heavy metals. These pollutants can cause cancer, neurological damage, and reproductive problems.
Residential heating and cooking: Burning wood, charcoal, kerosene, or other fuels for heating and cooking can produce smoke, carbon monoxide, particulate matter, and other pollutants. These pollutants can cause respiratory infections, asthma, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
Natural sources: Volcanoes, wildfires, dust storms, pollen, mold spores, and sea spray are some of the natural sources of air pollution. These sources can vary in intensity and frequency depending on the weather and geological conditions.
Air pollution can have various effects on human health and the environment. Some of the effects are:
Respiratory diseases: Air pollution can irritate the nose, throat, and lungs, causing coughing, wheezing, shortness of breath, and asthma attacks. Long-term exposure to air pollution can increase the risk of chronic respiratory diseases such as bronchitis, emphysema, and lung cancer.
Cardiovascular diseases: Air pollution can affect the heart and blood vessels, causing inflammation, blood clots, arrhythmia, heart attack, and stroke. Long-term exposure to air pollution can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases such as hypertension, atherosclerosis, and heart failure.
Cancer: Air pollution can contain carcinogens such as benzene, formaldehyde, asbestos, and radon. These substances can damage the DNA and cause mutations that lead to cancer. Long-term exposure to air pollution can increase the risk of various types of cancer such as lung cancer, bladder cancer, leukemia , and lymphoma.
Neurological disorders: Air pollution can affect the brain and nervous system , causing headaches , dizziness , fatigue , memory loss , cognitive impairment , depression , anxiety , and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and Parkinson's disease . Long-term exposure to air pollution can increase the risk of neurological disorders such as multiple sclerosis , autism , and schizophrenia .
Reproductive problems: Air pollution can affect the reproductive system , causing infertility , miscarriage , low birth weight , birth defects , and developmental disorders . Long-term exposure to air pollution can increase the risk of reproductive problems such as endometriosis , polycystic ovary syndrome , erectile dysfunction , and prostate cancer .
Environmental damage: Air pollution can affect the environment by reducing visibility , damaging crops , forests , wildlife , water quality , soil quality , and cultural heritage . Air pollution can also alter the climate by changing the radiation balance , cloud formation , precipitation patterns , wind patterns , ocean currents , and sea level . Air pollution can contribute to global warming by enhancing the greenhouse effect with gases such as carbon dioxide , methane , nitrous oxide , ozone , and chlorofluorocarbons . Air pollution can also contribute to acid rain by increasing the acidity of rainwater with gases such as sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides . 061ffe29dd